Bloom’s Taxonomy describes each level of cognitive function. The traditional education system views it like this: placing the vast majority of content in the brain at the lowest level brain functions. This is exactly how you were most likely taught. Memorizing facts to reiterate on tests and performing math problems over and over again ad nauseam, simply to do math problems.
For example, in the course on Public Speaking students read about different techniques but then they actually have to get up in front of the class and do it! A terrifying proposition to many, but just imagine if someone taught you how to effectively speak in front of a group of people before you left high school, what doors and opportunities could have opened?
Effective leaders are people who read a biography of JFK or Steve Jobs, then become leaders through practice and doing. Project based learning can happen in individual or group settings. Many of the individual settings are designed to help students understand content in relation to themselves and it’s often how younger students or newer subject matter is taught. As experience is gained in a subject, students are then tasked with the manipulation of that content in relation to others.
This is performed through a method called Scaffolding or Socratic Dialogue. First introduced to us by Plato and his charatcter Socrates who maintained he could never “teach” anyone anything, all he could do is ask them questions and let them determine the answer for themselves.
In today’s terms, this is Social Constructivism: you base what you know on that which you already know. Each time you are asked a new question, you answer it based on the things you already know.